BELAJAR BAHASA INGGRIS YUK …….. (part 1 )
Suatu hari beberapa murid muridku kelas 7 dan 8 yang caem-caem datang ke ruangku dan mereka mengeluh tentang kesulitan untuk memahami pelajaran bahasa Inggris, meskipun sudah diterangkan di kelas oleh bapak dan ibu guru. Nach biar nggak banyak lagi yang merasakan kesulitan tentang bahasa Inggris. Saya mencoba untuk membuat beberapa ringkasan materi dan latihan bahasa Inggris yang saya dapatkan dari beberapa sumber danhasil dari bongkar-bongkar file file lama yang pernah tersimpan di gudang. Semoga ini ada manfaatnya bagi anda semua, khususnya para siswa-siswaku yang selalu kreatif, aktif namun kadang juga sering njengkelin .
apa yang dimaksud GENRE ?
Genre adalah jenis teks.
Untuk level SMP, Genre yang harus dipelajari terdiri dari teks Narrative, Recount, Descriptive, Procedure dan Report.
Jadi, pembelajaran bahasa Inggris sekarang ini berdasarkan pada jenis teks(Genre), bukan lagi Tema seperti dulu. Artinya, pembelajaran saat ini lebih menitikberatkan pada pemberian kemampuan berbahasa atau ‘lifeskill’ kepada siswa, sehingga mereka dapat survive dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat dan dapat menerapkan dalam kehidupan siswa.
Sebelum mempelajari Genre, segala pengetahuan kebahasaan (Grammar dan Vocab) harus dipelajari agar siswa mampu bermonolog dan menulis sesuai dengan Genre yang akan diungkapkannya.
CONTOH CONTOH JENIS TEKS
I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side.
At first I thought a tyre had gone but then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks.
The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car.
When I got back to town, well, as I said, there wasn’t much left.
that young writers often indicate temporal sequence with ‘ and then, and then, and then’, Alternatives can be modelled and used when the teacher and students jointly construct Recounts.
Whales are sea-living mammals . They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30m in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.
3. NEWS ITEM TEXT
Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.
The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the then Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tonnes of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.
A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.
4. NARRATIVE TEXT
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
She was very tired and hungry.
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, what is your name? Snow White said, ‘My name is Snow White’.
Doc said, ‘If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, ‘Oh could(I) ?.Thankyou’. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
5. PROCEDURE TEXT
The Hole Game
One marble per person
A hole in ground
A line (distance) to start from
1. First you must dub (click marbles together).
2. Then you must check that the marbles are in good condition and are nearly worth the same value.
3. Next you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a fair distance away from the hole.
4. The first player carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole.
5. Then the second player tries to throw his or her marble closer to the hole than his or her opponent.
6. The player whose marble is closest to the hole tries to flick his or her marble into the hole. If successful, this player tries to flick his or her opponent’s marble into the hole.
The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.
6. DESCRIPTIVE TEXT
Natural Bridge National Park
Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest.
It is located 110 kilometres south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.
The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural ‘arch’ and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short 1 kilometre walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms.
Picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not permitted.
adalah teks yang isinya tentang pengalaman2 atau kejadian2 yang terjadi pada waktu lampau.
Contoh teks RECOUNT
1) I am used to travelling by air and only on one occasion I have ever felt frightened. After taking off, we flew low over the city. It slowly went high to the sky. But suddenly it turned round and flew back to the airport.(Ini adalah Orientation)
An airhostess told us to keep calm and to get off the plane quietly as soon as it touched down. Everybody on board was worried and we were curious to find out what happened. Later we learnt that there was a very important person on board. Earlier somebody told the police that there was a bomb on the plane. After we landed, the police searched the plane carefully. Fortunately, they did not find a bomb and five hours later we were able to take off again.(Ini adalah Event).
2) I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side. At first I thought a type had gone but that then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks. The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car. There was an earthquake. When I got back to town, there wasn’t much left.
Dalam teks Recount, Generic Structure nya adalah: Orientation – Events – Reorientation.
Note: ‘Event’ dalam teks Recount boleh satu atau lebih. Dan ‘Reorientation’ adalah optional(boleh ada boleh tidak)
Tenses yang digunakan selalu Past Tense.
Teks Report adalah teks yang isinya mendeskripsikan sesuatu (binatang/barang/tempat2 umum, dll) secara umum
Contoh Teks Report
1) A library is a place which collects records of what people have thought and done.(Ini adalah General Classification).
It preserves those records, and it ,makes them available to us, so that we can learn about many things. In the world of library, we can entertain ourselves, teach ourselves, and be inspired by the ideas that we might never have dreamed of otherwise.(Ini adalah ‘Description’)
A library has many sections. Commonly, a library has a reading room, a catalogue section, a newspaper and magazine section, books section, and a librarian desk which deals with book circulation. The books are classified based on the subjects, such as fiction, science, psychology, etc. They are arranged on the bookshelves.(Ini adalah ‘Description’).
2) Whales are sea-living mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and blue whale, which can exceed 30 cm in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids
Teks Report memiliki Generic Structure:
1. General Classification
Tenses yang digunakan adalah ‘Present Tense’.
Teks Prosedur adalah teks yang isinya mengenai langkah-langkah/step bagaimana membuat/ melakukan sesuatu
Contoh PROCEDURE TEXTS
How to Plant a Flower.
(Ini adalah Aim/Goal)
Materials and Tools:
A pail, a flower pot, a water dipper or water hose and a pair of gloves, soil and manure.
– Take a pail of soil from the backyard. Mix the soil and the manure.
– Put the mixture in the flower pot.
– Plant tha flower in the flower pot.
– Take some water using the water dipper. Sprinkle the plant
– Put a little soil around the plant
LOOP-THE-LOOP PAPER PLANE .
A sheet of heavy paper â€¢ A pencil â€¢ Sharp scissors â€¢ A paper clip â€¢ Crayons
Method/steps: Here a paper airplane that will fly in circles.
1. first fold the paper in half the long way
2. Then draw an airplane with wings and tail on it.
3. Next draw a line about an inch away from the fold on each side the full length of paper.
4. Then cut out the airplane, but do not cut on the fold.
5. After that spread out the airplane and colour it. You can draw airplane markings near each
6. Next refold your airplane. Now fold each wing down along the time drawn on it.
7. Then add a paper clip to the nose. You can change the way your airplane flies by changing
the wing shape and putting more than one paper clip on the nose.
Generic Structure Teks Procedure yaitu:
Tenses yang digunakan adalah Simple Present dalam bentuk Imperative.
Teks naratif adalah teks yang isinya tentang ceritera (fiksi/non fiksi/dongeng/cerita rakyat, dll) dan dalam alur cerita /plotnya selalu disertai dengan puncak masalah/ klimaks cerita (complication) kemudian diikuti dengan penyelesaian masalah (Resolution)
3. Evaluation (optional)
5. Re orientation
Orientation: it is about WHO, WHEN, and WHERE the story happened.
Evaluation: it is optional, it is usually used to make the story more interesting.
Complication: it is about the conflict or the big problem of the story. A story can have more than one complication.
Resolution: it is the solutiuon of the problem. It can be a happy or sad ending.
Example:The story of Cinderella, Snow White, Snow Maiden
This is the example :
Once upon a time there lived a couple in a village. They had got married for a long
time, but so far they did not have a baby yet. Every single minute they prayed to God, begged for a baby, but it never came true
Oneday, they went to snow mountain. They made a girl from snow and they dressed
her beautifully. When it got dark, they decided to go home and left the snow girl alone. The following morning, someone knocked the door. “Any body home?”, she said. The old women inside opened the door and asked, “Who are you?” The girl said “I’m Snow Maiden, your daughter”. The old woman was surprised and happy. “Oh really? Thanks God! Come in, please!” Since that meeting, they lived happily. Snow Maiden was beautiful, kind, diligent and helpful. Her parents and all of her friends loved her very much
Oneday, Snow Maiden played with her friends. They played fire. At first, Snow
Maiden just looked at their play. Suddenly, her friends asked her to jump on the fire. Of course she refused it because one thing that made her afraid was the fire. It’s because Snow Maiden was made of snow, so she should avoid the fire. But her friends kept on forcing her to jump on. Finally, she could not do anything then she did it. She jumped on the fire and she melted. Her friends was so sorry about this, they cried and cried hoping Snow Maiden could live again, but it was useless. Snow Maiden would not be back anymore
Her mother tried to entertain Snow Maiden’s friends and asked them to make a new Snow Maiden. They went to a snow mountain and started making it. They expected to have the new Snow Maiden. Days passed but their dreams never came true. Poor them
Teks Deskriptif adalah teks yang isinya mendiskripsikan tentang sesuatu hal (benda/ orang/ tempat/ binatang, dll) secara spesifik / detail.
Ben has a dog. Its name is Brownie. Itâ€™s brown. Brownie has black round eyes and big ears. Ita’s got thick fur especially around its tail. This dog doesn’tq like bones or meat. Everyday, it eats rice and fried fish. If you go to Jakarta, you can visit the Imax Theatre where you can see many shows.( Ini adalah Identification)
It is located in TMII complex, East Jakarta. Many people call it â€œKeong Masâ€? because the building has a shape like a snail. It looks amazing. The shape makes this place unique. It also has a large parking area. Besides, you can find a beautiful garden at the front of this building.